Lentigo: causes, treatment and prevention of disease
For the first time after encountering a sunburn with brownish spots on the skin, many are perplexed, and then anxiously refer to specialists. And with a certain degree of apprehension they listen to the doctor's diagnosis: lentigo. What it is? What are the causes of the occurrence, what is being treated and is it possible to completely get rid of such unpresentable spots? The question becomes more and more, and the answer can only be given by a specialist. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of the disease, you need to see a doctor who can either refute your suspicions, or appoint appropriate measures that can ease the condition. And first of all, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the skin ...
Etiology or causes
By this term physicians mean small brownish, and in rare cases, bluish spots that occur in people of absolutely different ages. This disease can affect both young men and women, mature men and women, and the elderly. This species refers to benign pigmentation spots . The far unaesthetic appearance of the skin in this disease is compensated only by the realization that the pigment spots rarely degenerate into malignant formations. It occurs as a result of a long stay in direct sunlight.
Types of Lentigo
Experts classify several main types of disease:
- Sunny Lentigo. Such spots appear after a long stay in the sun, after a severe sunburn .. Especially pronounced in white people, as well as those who have a thin and sensitive skin.
- The old lentigo is also called liver lentigo. In this case, the place of localization is not the places exposed to ultraviolet radiation, but the most characteristic for this disease. This face and the back of the hand, as well as the skin of the forearms. Spots of a lighter shade, they are easily confused with freckles. In some cases, senile lentigo or (hyperpigmentation of the skin) can degenerate into a malignant entity called skin cancer.
Much less common are two species of lentigo that are inherited and are a genetic anomaly.
- Lentiginosis Turena central. With this type of lentigo, the central part of the face is affected: nose, lip rim, forehead and less often cheeks. It is worth noting that in very rare cases, it is possible to defeat the shoulders. The main symptoms are lentiginous spots more resembling moles or nodules. As a rule, the disease rarely occurs only in the cutaneous form. Often, it is accompanied by epileptic attacks, incontinence, delayed development. This type of lentigiosis manifests itself in young children and is a hereditary violation.
- Periodic lentiginosis. It is also a hereditary disease transmitted from parents to offspring. The most characteristic factor is the presence of dark brown spots, which experts call "coffee with milk." The process is localized in the area of the mouth or the red border of the lips. It is possible to go to the mucosa of the oral cavity or there may be lesions of the conjunctiva. In this case, no connection with exposure to sunlight was detected. Later, in the period from five to thirty years, there may be a strong pain syndrome in the abdomen, numerous polyps formed in the intestine and stomach, leading to exhaustion of the patient.
Symptoms and treatment
With this disease, spots are observed, ranging from millet to lentil or bean seed. The form is usually elongated or rounded. It is possible to change shades from pale yellow to brown or even black. Sometimes there is condensation and the spots become convex.
Foci of lesions in various types of disease can be located both in exposed areas of the body, exposed to sunlight, and on the closed ones, including in the genital area and on the oral mucosa.
Depending on the type of lentigo after the examination, the specialist will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
- Usual or sunny lentigo. The complex of measures practically does not differ from the freckles used for treatment. Various cosmetic whitening and exfoliating agents are used.
- The use of retinol peeling helps with light spots. Otherwise, clarification of both the spot itself and the skin's primary tone is achieved.
- Laser skin resurfacing. Allows to significantly reduce the protruding parts of the spots.
- Photoprotection is applied. The main principle of active photoprotection is the destruction of the pigment layer under the action of a flash of light having a high temperature.
- In some cases, diathermocoagulation of individual lentigo elements is indicated. The essence of the method consists in heating the tissue pointwise to 80 degrees. The result of such manipulation is the folding of the protein. On the spot, a small scar is formed in a pale pink color. Over time, it disappears.
- If the disease is caused by hereditary factors, then the doctor can prescribe X-ray therapy. Since in this case it is recognized as the most effective method of treatment.
- Complications in the form of polyps localized in the intestine or stomach are used to remove formations promptly.
Prevention of lentigo
In this case, we are talking only about the solar tape lentigo, since neither the senile nor the hereditary forms of prevention measures have been developed.
The most effective method recommended by experts is the use of sunscreen products that are most suitable for your skin type. You can choose them yourself or with the help of a dermatologist. The exposure to direct sunlight should be reduced or the time of tanning be transferred from 9 to 11 am and from 17 to 19 pm. Thus, it is possible to minimize the harmful effects of the sun and protect yourself from such an unpleasant disease.